In this context phenomenon of the automotive catalytic converter will be discussed. First of all, what is a catalyst that needs to be understood? Catalyst is the element that helps in the chemical reaction. The most important factor is that they never react. Also, after the reaction, the product which is produced is neutral or nonpoisonous. Multiple elements have such properties. They are mainly used for those kinds of reactions, which are very slow. They are also used for those reactions from which poisonous gases can be produced. They play a vital role in the vehicles. From vehicles, there are emissions of poisonous gases. Before these poisonous gases come into the environment, it has to be converted into nonpoisonous gases.
Working of a catalyst
How does the catalyst work? The catalyst is stored in the oxide. For example, palladium oxide, aluminum oxide, platinum oxide. Now, these catalysts convert the oxidation state of gases, which is formed. Petrol and Diesel are hydrocarbons. To move the piston of the engine, the gas is generated from the liquid. If the catalyst is not present, then carbon monoxide will be generated. If the catalytic converter is present, the oxygen will react with the emitted gas’s oxygen, and the poisonous gas will be converted into nonpoisonous.
Mechanism of the working of the catalytic converter
The presence of a catalytic converter also takes away solid hydrocarbons that otherwise get accumulated on the vehicle’s engine. If an accumulation of the other elements over the catalyst converts them, it might be hazardous. Firstly, the actual reaction will not take place. Ignition temperature is always required for the converter to work. The concept of a catalytic converter is to reduce the emission of poisonous gases. There are two types. The first was designed to combine carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. There are three ways also. In this type, the emission of nitrogen also gets neutral. For any reaction, a high surface area is required. The substance which helps in the reaction is known as catalyst support.
The support is made up of cement. There are multiple reasons behind this. The ceramic material can tolerate a high amount of temperature, heat resistance, brittle, etc. As much as the area will be higher, it will be easy for reactions to happen. Placements are always done near the engine. In many countries, it is the law to add the catalyst converter to avoid air pollution. The efficiency has been calculated and is found nearby ninety percent. Particulate matter is small solid substances which are present in the air. They are generated from hydrocarbon. The catalyst reacts with them and produces water. The particulate matter gets removed by thirty to forty percent very easily.